Fracturing technology has been widely used in North America. Although it has been used for nearly 40 years in China, the related tools still rely on imports, which severely limits the efficiency of China's oil. Therefore, the development of fracturing tools with soluble functions is of great significance to ensure the stable production and high yield of China's oil fields.
The hydrogen storage alloy and application group of the Materials and Devices Research Department of Metals has developed a soluble aluminum alloy material that can be dissolved in pure water using the existing aluminum water reaction research foundation, and can regulate the reaction of the alloy with water. The initial temperature and the rate of dissolution in water.
In general, it is difficult to observe the dissolution of aluminum in water because the continuous and dense oxide film on the aluminum surface hinders the aluminum water reaction. If aluminum is alloyed with some low melting point metals (Ga, In, Sn), the interfacial low melting point phase formed by these low melting point metals on the surface of the aluminum crystal grains will destroy the continuity of the oxide film on the aluminum surface. The research group carried out a series of work on some basic problems of aluminum water reaction. It was found that when the alloy is in contact with water, the aluminum in the low melting point phase and the water are exothermic, and the aluminum atoms in the aluminum grains can be in the liquid interface. Continuous diffusion in the low melting point phase. Aluminum can continue to react with water by virtue of the low melting point relative to the destruction of the aluminum oxide film and the transport of aluminum atoms. Further studies have found that the initial temperature of the aluminum water reaction is closely related to the melting point of the interface low melting point phase, and the melting point of the interface low melting point phase can be regulated by the composition of the alloy, and the reaction rate and the low melting point covering the surface of the aluminum crystal grain. The phase area is proportional. In addition, the research team also studied Cu, Mg, Zn and
The influence of other alloying elements such as Ti on the solubility properties of the alloys was found to have different effects on the initial temperature and reaction rate of the reaction of aluminum with aluminum.
The soluble aluminum alloy is used as a structural member in addition to requiring good solubility, and must have sufficient strength and certain plasticity. In order to meet the solubility and mechanical properties of soluble aluminum alloys, low melting point metals (Ga, In, Sn) and various strengthening alloying elements must be added to the alloy. However, the low melting point phase distributed on the grain boundary of the aluminum alloy is generally unfavorable for the strength and plasticity of the alloy, especially for plastic damage. On the other hand, the strengthening alloying element also changes the solubility properties of the alloy while strengthening the alloy. Because the roles played by these two types of alloying elements are mutually constrained, the selection of suitable alloying elements, contents and proportions to balance solubility and mechanical properties is essential for alloy preparation. Based on a large number of experiments, the researchers optimized the alloy composition, refined the alloy grains and improved the quality of the aluminum liquid to improve the plasticity of the alloy. The quenching and aging process was used to control the overall performance of the alloy, and the final preparation was satisfactory. Aluminum alloy materials required for working conditions.
The strength of the developed alloy is above 350MPa, the Vickers hardness is close to 150, and the compressive strength meets the requirements of hydraulic fracturing. The initial reaction temperature of the aluminum water of the soluble alloy can be adjusted from room temperature to 85 Â° C, and the dissolution rate of the alloy can also be adjusted according to different working conditions.
Compared with the soluble aluminum alloy developed by the research group, the current resin and aluminum composite soluble materials are equivalent in strength, but the former needs to be dissolved by a special etching solution, and the latter reacts with the initial reaction temperature of water. The dissolution rate in water is not easily regulated, and the alloy exhibits excellent overall properties. In addition, the alloy can be smelted and cast by conventional processes, with low cost and high productivity, suitable for large-scale application and promotion.
The research team cooperated with relevant enterprises to develop a number of products such as fracturing balls, ball seats and bridge plugs. Fracturing balls have been used in oil fields such as Daqing and Changqing. Soluble aluminum alloy bridge plugs and tees have also passed the uphole test in Daqing. At present, the global oil wells using hydraulic fracturing technology are estimated to be several hundred thousand, and there are nearly 10,000 in Daqing alone. There is a huge market demand for soluble aluminum alloys.
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